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are ties between us and others,' meaning the Jews,' which now we shall have to tear asunder; but if we do this and God gives thee victory, wilt thou then leave us again and return to thy own home?' Muhammad replied, 'Your blood is my blood; what you shed, I also shed; you belong to me and I belong to you; I fight whomsoever ye fight, and I make peace with whomsoever ye make peace.' 1 This shows that the politico-religious development of his system had now advanced a stage farther in the Prophet's mind, and his long-felt desire to unite the Arab people in a political whole seemed nearer its fulfilment. This compact was a civil and political one, defensive and offensive, based on the rejection of idolatry, acceptance of Islam and obedience to the will of the Prophet. 'On the first pilgrimage his sympathisers from Madina had only to avow the fealty of women: but on the second, when such further progress had been made that their number exceeded seventy, they had to promise the fealty of men and warriors.'2 This compact is not a change of front, it simply embodies the growing development of the principles of Islam from the first, and forms a definite starting point for the national and foreign conquests it was now about to enter upon.

The last Sura delivered at Mecca is Sura Ar-Ra'd (xiii). It deals entirely with the Quraish and is the Prophet's last word there with them. It has been well called the 'Chapter of Apologies,' as it

1 Ibn Ishaq, quoted by Koelle, Mohammed and Mohammedanism, p. 325.
2Koelle, Mohammed and Mohammedanism, p. 107.

gives reasons why the Prophet did not work miracles. When they asked for a sign he was told to say, 'Thou art a warner only.' The unbelievers said they would not believe unless a sign were sent to him by God. No sign was given but the message came:—

Say, God truly will mislead whom He will and He will guide to Himself him who turneth to Him. 27.
Whom God causeth. to err, no guide shall there be for him.
Chastisement awaiteth them in this present life and more grievous shall be the chastisement of the next. 3-4.

The words 'withdraw from them who join other gods with Him' [Sura Al-An'am (vi)106 are said to be a command to leave Mecca.

Thus, with words of warning, and threatening of eternal fire and everlasting punishment on those who rejected his claims, the Prophet left the city in which for thirteen long years he had preached and pleaded in vain.

A few days after this, Muhammad gave the command to his followers saying, 'Depart unto Madina for the Lord hath verily given you brethren in that city, and a home in which ye may find refuge.' In the course of two months nearly all had emigrated. The Quraish were very much concerned at all this and, as Muhammad still remained behind, were much perplexed at the state of affairs and wondered what would come next. They determined that a deputation should wait on him, but he, fearing some plot, stole away from his house, joined Abu Bakr and, as night drew on, left the city. The

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