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1 "Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen" (Wiesbaden, 1833).

2 In the use of the word "Animism" we refer to primitive pagan practices and not to other uses of the term. William McDougall writes in his "Body and Mind" (Methuen & Co. Ltd., 36 Essex St., W. C., p. viii of Preface) : "Primitive Animism seems to have grown up by extension of this notion to the explanation of all the more striking phenomena of nature. And the Animism of civilized men, which has been and is the foundation of every religious system, except the more rigid Pantheism, is historically continuous with the primitive doctrine. But, while religion; superstition, and the hope of a life beyond the grave have kept alive amongst us a variety of animistic beliefs, ranging in degree of refinement and subtlety from primitive Animism to that taught by Plato, Liebnitz, Lotze, William James, or Henri Bergson modern science and philosophy have turned their backs upon Animism of every kind with constantly increasing decision; and the efforts of modern philosophy have been largely directed towards the ex-cognition of a view of man and of the world which shall hold fast to the primacy and efficiency of mind or spirit, while rejecting the animistic conception of human personality. My prolonged puzzling over the psycho-physical problem has inclined me to believe that these attempts cannot be successfully carried through, and that we must accept without reserve Professor Taylor's dictum that Animism embodies the very essence of spiritualistic, as opposed to materialistic, philosophy, and that the deepest of all schisms is that which divides Animism from Materialism."

In our treatment of Islam we do not deal with the psychology or philosophy of Animism in this sense at all. Islam as well as Christianity believes thoroughly in the existence of the soul as well as the body, and Moslem philosophy never became materialistic. The belief in life after death and in the mortality of the soul is not disputed. This book deals with the pagan interpretations of this doctrine and with superstitions connected with a belief in demons, etc., more commonly known as Animism.

3 "Animism," by Rev. K.W.S. Kennedy, Westminster, 1914.

4 Warneck - "Living Christ and Dying Heathenism," p. 7.

5 Cf. Tisdall, "The Sources of the Qur'an," pp. 44-45.

6 "The Achenese," pp. 287-8.

7 "The Progress and Arrest of Islam in Sumatra," Gottfried Simon, pp. 157-9.

8 "The Progress and Arrest of Islam in Sumatra," Gottfried Simon, London, pp. 48-51.

9 Skeat's "Malay Magic," p xiii.

10 "The Living Christ and Dying Heathenism," p. 103. Compare also Ellinwood's "Oriental Religions and Christianity," p.225.

11 "Encyclopedia Britannica," art. Animism.

12 Chas. E.G. Tisdall in "The Missionary Review of the World," 1916.

13 "The Progress and Arrest of Islam in Sumatra," London, 1912.

14 Harnack: "The Mission and Expansion of Christianity," Vol. I, Book II, Chapter III.

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